Mushroom is the given name among the population to any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. They are cultivated in moist, warm and places that takes low light.
Mushroom production for food became an industry in Europe, China, USA and Japan. Mushroom cultivation in China has a history of 600 years. Europe on the other hand started production of cultivated mushroom at 1650 in France. USA, Hungary, England, Denmark and Germany started mushroom cultivation for commercial purpose in 1900s. 9 million tonne of mushroom is produced in the world.
Countries that produces the most cultivated mushroom are China with 7 million tonne, Italy with 792 thousand tonne, USA with 487 thousand tonne, Holland with 323 thousand tonne and Poland with 220 thousand tonne. %97 of the world’s mushroom production is in Europe, Americas and East Asia. Turkey started mushroom cultivation commercially in 1960s. Turkey produces 45 thousand tonne mushroom yearly. Mediterranean Region is first in terms of mushroom cultivation in Turkey with 83 tonne daily. Marmara Region is second with 26 tonne and Aegean Region is third with 10 tonne of daily mushroom production.
Mediterranean Region is responsible for %61 of total production. Provinces that produces the most; Antalya, Burdur, Konya, Kocaeli and İzmir. Antalya is responsible for %55 of total production. Korkuteli county of Antalya is the center for mushroom production with 18.500 tonne.
Agaricus cultivar is the most produced cultivar of mushroom with %30. Then Pleurotus is second with %27 and Letinula is third with %17. These three cultivars constitutes %74 of the total production on the world. In Turkey on the other hand Agaricus type is first with %86, Pleurotus is second with %10 and Lentinula is third with %3.
%50 of the mushrooms that are cultivated in Turkey are exported to European countries. France is the most exported country. After European countries USA, Japan and Middle Eastern countries are the ones that are exported the most.